Researchers have focused on different areas such as industrial applications with both product-oriented, natural resources and services, practice and policies to better understand the limitations that the CE currently faces, strategic management for details of the circular economy and different outcomes such as potential re-use applications and waste management. With UK taxpayers covering 50%–70% of the bill, there is an urgent need to discuss the most economic, social and environmentally beneficial decommissioning solutions for the general public. Lazarevic, D., & Valve, H. (2017). The companies either offer flexible pricing in a 'pay as you rent' model like Palanta does, or offer fixed monthly subscriptions such as Rent The Runway or Le Tote. In return for the goods, businesses bring in revenue. , Another report by WRAP and the Green Alliance (called "Employment and the circular economy: job creation in a more resource efficient Britain"), done in 2015 has examined different public policy scenarios to 2030. The Journal of Industrial Ecology (2017) stated that the "Chinese perspective on the circular economy is broad, incorporating pollution and other issues alongside waste and resource concerns, [while] Europe's conception of the circular economy has a narrower environmental scope, focusing on waste and resources and opportunities for business".  This allows assessment of different digital circular economy strategies with their associated level of maturity, providing guidance on how to leverage data and analytics to maximize circularity (i.e., optimizing functionality and resource intensity). The emissions reduction commitments made by 195 countries at the COP 21 Paris Agreement, are not sufficient to limit global warming to 1.5 °C. National income, output, and expenditure are generated by the activities of the two most vital parts of an economy, its households and firms, as they engage in mutually beneficial exchange. , The circular economy includes products, infrastructure, equipment and services, and applies to every industry sector. The circular flow of economic activity is a model showing the basic economic relationships within a market economy. , Strategic management is the field of management that comes to the rescue allowing companies to carefully evaluate CE-inspired ideas, but also to take a firm apart and investigate if/how/where seeds of circularity can be found or implanted. Some of the areas are chemical industries, wholesale trade, industry and agriculture, forestry and fisheries because they see a potential reduction of costs when reusing, recycling and reducing raw materials imports. , While the initial focus of academic, industry, and policy activities was mainly focused on the development of re-X (recycling, remanufacturing, reuse, etc.) Firms employ workers, who spend their In line with this, a circular economy can contribute to meeting the COP 21 Paris Agreement. The flows of money and goods exchanged in a closed circuit correspond in value, but run in the opposite direction. , Research related to the Dutch industry shows that 25% of the Dutch companies are knowledgeable and interested in a circular economy; furthermore, this number increases to 57% for companies with more than 500 employees. The Netherlands, aiming to have a completely circular economy by 2050, has also foreseen a shift to circular agriculture (kringlooplandbouw) as part of this plan. We need to make less and sell less ... you get to use your creativity but you also get to sell more but not create more stuff.". This shows that fast fashion is harming the planet in more ways than one by running on a linear system. Phases of Circular Flow Income (i) Production of goods and services. A 2017 report, "A New Textiles Economy", stated the four key ambitions needed to establish a circular economy: "phasing out substances of concern and microfiber release; transforming the way clothes are designed, sold and used to break free from their increasingly disposable nature; radically improving recycling by transforming clothing design, collection, and reprocessing; and making effective use of resources and moving to renewable input." Leakages (withdrawals) from the circular flow The model represents all of the actors in an economy as either households or firms (companies), and it divides markets into two categories: Markets for goods and services  These strategies can be achieved through the purposeful design of material recovery processes and related circular supply chains.  Such environmental effects include tons of clothing ending up in landfills and incineration, while the societal effects put human rights at risk. The circular economy appears as a helpful solution to diminish the environmental impact of the industry. In the electric vehicle industry, disassembly robots are used to help disassemble the vehicle. Focusing on connections between operators within the "industrial ecosystem", this approach aims at creating closed-loop processes in which waste is seen as input, thus eliminating the notion of undesirable by-product.. Elements are considered as 'fitting in' their infrastructure, environment and social context. Corvellec, Hervé (2019). As early as 1966 Kenneth Boulding raised awareness of an "open economy" with unlimited input resources and output sinks, in contrast with a "closed economy", in which resources and sinks are tied and remain as long as possible a part of the economy. "Evaluation of the metals industry's position on recycling and its implications for environmental emissions". The aim is to reduce the amount of waste generated, therefore reducing the need for landfill space and also extracting maximum value from waste. Circular business models can be defined as business models that are closing, narrowing, slowing, intensifying and dematerializing loops, to minimize the resource inputs into and the waste and emission leakage out of the organizational system. This is the basic structure behind the circular flow diagram. Householders (people like you or me) could get a job in a factory making cars. The circular-flow diagram is a model that represents the transactions in an economy by flows around a circle. Recent research has started to question the core of the circular economy—namely, whether closing material and product loops do, in fact, prevent primary production. The most common form of this model shows the circular flow of income between the household sector and the business sector. At the time still called 'preventive environmental management', his follow-on book Material Concerns: Pollution, Profit and Quality of Life synthesised these findings into a manifesto for change, moving industrial production away from an extractive linear system towards a more circular economy. Simple flow. Diagram of Circular Flow of Income: The circular flow of income in a two sector economy is explained with the help of figure 23.1.  The main causes of the construction's environmental impact are found in the consumption of non-renewable resources and the generation of contaminant residues, both of which are increasing at an accelerating pace.. In their 1976 research report to the European Commission, "The Potential for Substituting Manpower for Energy", Walter Stahel and Genevieve Reday sketched the vision of an economy in loops (or circular economy) and its impact on job creation, economic competitiveness, resource savings and waste prevention. In addition, logistic companies can enable a connection to a circular economy by providing customers incentives to reduce costs through shipment and route optimization, as well as, offering services such as prepaid shipping labels, smart packaging, and take-back options.  The circular economy standard BS 8001:2017 tries to align the far-reaching ambitions of the CE with established business routines at the organizational level. . , Intuitively, the circular economy would appear to be more sustainable than the current linear economic system. The level of recycling that is appropriate may differ between materials.. On 17 December 2012, the European Commission published a document entitled "Manifesto for a Resource Efficient Europe". The construction sector is one of the world's largest waste generators. 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