Cottonwoods (Populus deltoids) are massive shade trees that grow naturally throughout the United States. Where they appear in mixed stands, the poplar sometimes has small, leafed branches lower down on the trunk. Fire might have been used by some Native Alaskan populations in southeastern Alaska to, for example, fell large trees or clear burial grounds, but the effects were likely local [17,38]. ©2020 Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks. They thrive alongside streams, rivers, and lowland areas. You can recognize them at a distance by their broad, white trunks. The GI is located on the West Ridge of the University of Alaska Fairbanks campus. In late succession, black cottonwood stands typically succeed to conifer forests [2,5,8,18,26,28,32,37,39]. months[4] = "May"; A review stated that fires are of lower severity and occur less frequently in riparian areas than in surrounding uplands [9,31]. Its large, wide-spreading limbs start to leave the trunk near the ground, resulting in a broad crown, often as wide as the tree … Pollen: The real culprits Alaska's early, warm summer has created a perfect storm for airborne pollen from sources other than cottonwood trees. Citation for this synthesis: Cottonwood trees are a member of the poplar family. var date = new Date(); It is common for people in interior Alaska and corresponding areas of northwestern Canada to use the name cottonwood when referring to one widespread variety of deciduous tree. Fire regimes of Alaskan black cottonwood communities. Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), one of the largest eastern hardwoods, is short-lived but the fastest-growing commercial forest species in North America. “Plants are stuck where they are, so they communicate with microbes that are in the soil, water and air, and recruit them in,” said Sharon Doty, professor of environmental and forest sciences at … Persons wishing to learn more about Alaska's trees will be interested in a low-cost but comprehensive book by Leslie A. Viereck and Elbert L. Little, Jr. entitled Alaska Trees and Shrubs. Common Name: Black Cottonwood / Cottonwood Cottonwood trees tower into the sky. In the wild they usually grow in groups and gain heights of 150ft. 5 out of 5 stars (1,374) 1,374 reviews $ 14.99. Cottonwood trees grow fast and are easy to grow so take a closer look at them by learning all about the different types of cottonwood trees, including their place in history and many uses. As of this writing (2014), there was little published information on historical fire regimes in these communities. Cottonwood is a well-known, common tree along rivers and streams throughout the West.Cultivation of hybrid poplars (Populus trichocarpa x. P. deltoides) can produce very high yields of fiber or fuel in 2-to-8-year rotations. Black cottonwood sprouts from lateral roots, the root crown, and/or the bole after top-kill by fire [12,16]. Bark: Yellowish-green and smooth on young trees but deeply furrowed in maturity. months[9] = "October"; months[2] = "March"; The Alaska fishing industry used to throw away the salmon roe until a visiting Japanese businessman saw what was going on and now someone makes lots of money selling salmon roe. To give an idea of just how structurally week our Alaska cottonwood is here is one of the many ways it has failed to come even remotely close to the strength of spruce, pine, or even western red cedar. Anecdotal information suggests that repeated fires at short intervals may exclude black cottonwood. The best cottonwood stands in the Susitna Valley contain as much as 34,000 board feet of lumber per acre. Some cottonwood trees have been known to add six feet or more in height every single year! "Softwoods" are from evergreen trees and some like Sothern Yellow Pine make some of the most dense lumber around. Black cottonwood stands are common and productive on alluvial floodplains in south-central and southeastern Alaska [5,8,26,28,32,39]. Some species of cottonwood trees have been known to reach heights of 100 ft. (30 m) or more. The range of black cottonwood extends from Alaska, south through Yukon, British Columbia, and Alberta, the western, conterminous United States, and into Baja California Norte [7,19,20]. Learn more about cottonwood … One giant cottonwood near Klukwan, not far from Skagway and Haines, has breast height diameter just over ten feet. ]. Frequent flooding, shifting channels, and sediment deposition are the most common disturbances in Alaskan black cottonwood floodplain forests [5,23,26,28]. COTTONWOOD BARK CARVINGS David L. Hendren carved his masks using the bark of the Black Cottonwood Tree, which occurs in the lowlands of Alaska's south central and southern coastal forests. The seedlings and saplings are usually killed regardless of fire severity because of thin bark and shallow roots [6], and all trees may be killed or top-killed by high-severity fire. For a list of Alaskan black cottonwood communities, see These factors can contribute to increased fire severity in mature stands [12]. for Alaskan quaking aspen and balsam poplar. Their trunks are deeply furrowed. months[0] = "January"; Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) is one of the largest North American hardwood trees, although the wood is rather soft. and narrowleaf cottonwood, sprouted from stumps within 5 months of an April fire that occurred prior to green up [12]. In Alaska, wind-driven fires beginning in upland communities may spread to adjacent black cottonwood forests, but as of 2014, no studies reported this. The large cottonwood stands in the lower Susitna Valley are considered to have the highest potential for economic development of any stands in the valley, though the volume of both white spruce and birch there is somewhat larger. It is one of the largest of some 40 species of Populus and is the tallest, fastest-growing hardwood in the western United States. Arno [3] stated that black cottonwood forests along major rivers of the Pacific Northwest likely burned frequently because they were historically surrounded by communities with frequent fires, such as Pacific ponderosa pine savannas and sagebrush steppes [3]. Please report any problems or feedback concerning this website to uaf-rcs@alaska.edu. Black cottonwood and other riparian communities consist of a mosaic of stands in varying Plant cottonwoods only if your house has a large expanse of outdoor land for maximum effect. The bark comes from trees that have been dead for five to six years. Alaska Activity Guide Your expert travel companion in Alaska. While poplar may grow to 100 feet high and two feet across, cottonwood can reach to 125 feet and be much larger in diameter. Cottonwoods are the largest trees that grow in Alaska outside of southeast Alaska. It is unclear how human ignitions affected fire regimes in Alaskan black cottonwood communities historically. While Alaska won't get rich from cottonwood, some families might be able to make a living. Cottonwood trees get their name from the fluffy cotton-like seeds produced by the female tree. Black cottonwood is frequently damaged by fire [1,15]. Because fire has been historically very rare in these communities [27,37,40], fire spread from these communities into adjacent black cottonwood communities was likely very rare. ID:26476. However, summer is the peak fire season in south-central and southeastern Alaska [29], so fire is most likely in Alaskan black cottonwood stands after green up, when sprouting may be less than in spring. var day = date.getDate(); The error is a small one in one sense because the tree referred to, balsam poplar, is practically indistinguishable from its close relative, the black cottonwood. It occurs throughout the eastern United States, parts of southern Canada, and northern Mexico. Gom and Rood [12] suggested that prairie fires would have periodically burned into riparian cottonwood woodlands in Alberta. 2014. These large trees can grow to between 50 and 80 ft. (15 – 24 m). The bark is gray and smooth on young branches and the trunk becomes deeply furrowed with age. The cottonwood leaf is very similar to the poplar. Balsam poplar is the most widespread broadleaf tree in Alaska; it ranges even farther north and west than another close relative, the quaking aspen. Available: www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/fire_regimes/AK_black_cottonwood/all.html The bark is rough and dark-colored, thus “black cottonwood”. The University of Alaska Fairbanks is an AA/EO employer and educational institution and prohibits illegal discrimination against any individual: Learn more about UA's notice of nondiscrimination. But since cottonwoods do not grow in Alaska except on the southern and southeastern coast, the terminology obviously is wrong. a cottonwood leaf (populus deltoides). These trees have been very important to the native people living in North America. Learn more … Continue reading For information on fire regimes in balsam poplar communities, see the trichocarpa is a large cottonwood tree of the western United States. Cottonwoods are the largest trees in Arizona. These trees are native to North America, Western Asia, and Europe. Cottonwoods do have very aggressive roots that will lift driveways and press on foundations. It is caused by a bacterial infection that enters through wounds in the bark. Cottonwood Tree Pictures category has many photos of Cottonwood Trees, facts on the Cottonwood Tree species, we have lots of pictures of Cottonwood Trees But since cottonwoods do not grow in Alaska except on the southern and southeastern coast, the terminology obviously is wrong. Above, bacteria are shown on pieces of cottonwood trees. document.write(year+", "+months[month]+" "+day); months[5] = "June"; Lightning-caused fires are uncommon in south-central and southeastern Alaska [17,24], and thus also in black cottonwood communities. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Populus trichocarpa, the black cottonwood, western balsam-poplar or California poplar, is a deciduous broadleaf tree species native to western North America. Stephen Nickel, with the Alaska Division of Forestry, thinks that the cottonwood has many purposes. It grows very tall and has large heart-shaped leaves with small teeth. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, With the building of the border wall, the future of these trees is in question, as the river flows north. Both poplar and cottonwood grow well in river bottoms and sand bars. months[11] = "December"; Its nearest rival, a tree near Salem, Oregon, does hold the national height record. provide up-to-date information to the management community on historical fire regimes and contemporary changes in fuels Wide rivers provide more effective firebreaks than small rivers with greater canopy continuity, at least during mild fire weather [9,31,36]. For example, in a riparian black cottonwood grove along the Oldman River, 100-year-old black cottonwoods had up to 4 fire scars, suggesting low-severity surface fires at 20- to 30-year intervals [33]. Since it was established by an Act of Congress in 1946, scientists at the Geophysical Institute have studied geophysical processes from the center of the Earth to the surface of the sun and beyond, turning data and observations into information useful for state, Arctic and national priorities. The Klukwan giant belies the belief that trees tend to get smaller the farther north one goes. Close up, it is easy to distinguish between balsam poplar and quaking aspen from the leaves and, to a lesser extent, by the branching structure. As of this writing (2014), there was little published information on historical fire regimes in these communities. successional stages [11,13,14,33]. They occur on upper river terraces, large glacial moraines, and gentle hillslopes [5,8,18,26,28,39]. Along floodplains and recently deglaciated sites, alders are usually present throughout black cottonwood stand development; willows are common in early succession but become less common in mid- to late succession. In areas such as the lower Susitna Valley, near Anchorage, the trees themselves apparently do not know the difference, because they interbreed to produce hybrids. Read on for more cottonwood tree facts. Browse 1,480 cottonwood tree stock photos and images available, or search for cotton plant or cotton ball to find more great stock photos and ... katmai national park and preserve, southwest alaska - cottonwood tree stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images. Mature black cottonwood communities often have higher fuel loading than young stands, and mature black cottonwood trees have more heart rot than young trees. Cottonwoods are also known to drop branches. ID:26475. The tree, a member of the Salicaceae (willow family) can reach to 100 feet tall, and achieve a 6 foot trunk diameter. Icon Attribution: Newspaper by Alexandria Eddings from the Noun Project, The northern shrike: songbird like no other. … Black cottonwood trees were killed and replaced by bunchgrasses in 4 locations after 2 fires that were 19 years apart in Glacier National Park, Montana (Singer 1975 cited in [4]). 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