A staunch ally of Rome, Massalia retained its independence until it sided with Pompey in 49 BC and was then taken by Caesar's forces. The founding of new cities and military colonies continued to be a major part of the Successors' struggle for control of any particular region, and these continued to be centers of cultural diffusion. The wars of Antiochus III brought the region into the Seleucid empire; Jerusalem fell to his control in 198 BC and the Temple was repaired and provided with money and tribute. During the reign of Mithridates II, Pontus was allied with the Seleucids through dynastic marriages. After the death of Lysimachus, one of his officers, Philetaerus, took control of the city of Pergamum in 282 BC along with Lysimachus' war chest of 9,000 talents and declared himself loyal to Seleucus I while remaining de facto independent.  He was defeated in 288 BC when Lysimachus of Thrace and Pyrrhus of Epirus invaded Macedon on two fronts, and quickly carved up the kingdom for themselves. German historian J. G. Droysen coined the word "Hellenistic" during the 19th century, to refer to the expansion of Greek culture after Alexander's death.  He also wrote a massive catalog of the holdings of the library of Alexandria, the famous Pinakes. It included a diverse population estimated at fifty to sixty million people. The Hellenistic Period: Historical Sources in Translation. In 281 Pyrrhus (nicknamed "the eagle", aetos) invaded southern Italy to aid the city state of Tarentum. Athens later allied itself to Ptolemaic Egypt to throw off Macedonian rule, eventually setting up a religious cult for the Ptolemaic kings and naming one of the city's phyles in honour of Ptolemy for his aid against Macedon. The focus on the Hellenistic period over the course of the 19th century by scholars and historians has led to an issue common to the study of historical periods; historians see the period of focus as a mirror of the period in which they are living.  However, Emporion lost its political independence around 195 BC with the establishment of the Roman province of Hispania Citerior and by the 1st century BC had become fully Romanized in culture.. Further ruin was brought to Greece by the Roman civil wars, which were partly fought in Greece. Under Antiochus I (c. 324/323 – 261 BC), however, the unwieldy empire was already beginning to shed territories. At the same time, mercenaries were more frequently used in Hellenistic armies, in order to face the military and technical evolution which greatly increased the cost for equip a civic army. He was successful, bringing back most of these provinces into at least nominal vassalage and receiving tribute from their rulers. This came to an end when they sided with the renegade Seleucid prince Antiochus Hierax who tried to defeat Attalus, the ruler of Pergamon (241–197 BC). This varied greatly by location. The depictions of the Buddha appear to have been influenced by Greek culture: Buddha representations in the Ghandara period often showed Buddha under the protection of Herakles. They were defeated by Seleucus I in the 'battle of the Elephants', but were still able to establish a Celtic territory in central Anatolia. Technological developments from the Hellenistic period include cogged gears, pulleys, the screw, Archimedes' screw, the screw press, glassblowing, hollow bronze casting, surveying instruments, an odometer, the pantograph, the water clock, a water organ, and the Piston pump. For some purposes the period is extended for a further three and a half centuries, to the move by Constantine the Great of his capital to Constantinople (Byzantium) in 330 ce .  Agathocles then invaded Italy (c. 300 BC) in defense of Tarentum against the Bruttians and Romans, but was unsuccessful. Hellenistic culture thus represents a fusion of the ancient Greek world with that of Western Asian, Northeastern African and Southwestern Asian.  Angelos Chaniotis ends the Hellenistic period with the death of Hadrian in 138 AD, who integrated the Greeks fully into the Roman Empire; and a range from c. 321 BC to 256 AD may also be given.. The kingdoms became so independent from Seleucid control that Antiochus III the Great waged war on them during his reign and replaced their rulers.  Lysimachus, who had seized Macedon and Thessaly for himself, was forced into war when Seleucus invaded his territories in Asia Minor and was defeated and killed in 281 BC at the Battle of Corupedium, near Sardis. Philip continued to wage war against Pergamum and Rhodes for control of the Aegean (204–200 BC) and ignored Roman demands for non-intervention in Greece by invading Attica. Ancient Greece had traditionally been a fractious collection of fiercely independent city-states. This page was last edited on 28 December 2020, at 15:59. This was a very short period in history. d. Alexander the Great’s birth. Claessen & Skalník (editors), The Early State, page 428. Alexander appointed an Orontid named Mithranes to govern Armenia. In consequence, the Hellenistic Period is usually accepted to begin in 323 BCE with Alexander's death and ends in 31 BCE with the conquest of the last Hellenistic kingdom by Rome, the Lagid kingdom of Egypt. Like the Ptolemies, Antiochus I established a dynastic religious cult, deifying his father Seleucus I. Seleucus, officially said to be descended from Apollo, had his own priests and monthly sacrifices. Rome now demanded that the Achaean League, the last stronghold of Greek independence, be dissolved. traditionally marks the beginning of the Hellenistic period.  The Diadochi also used Thracian mercenaries in their armies and they were also used as colonists. The use of heavily armored cataphracts and also horse archers was adopted by the Seleucids, Greco-Bactrians, Armenians and Pontus. Throughout the Hellenistic world, people would consult oracles, and use charms and figurines to deter misfortune or to cast spells. According to Strabo, the Greco-Bactrians seem to have had contacts with China through the silk road trade routes (Strabo, XI.11.1). Bolos of Mendes made developments in alchemy and Theophrastus was known for his work in plant classification.  He then began expanding his influence into Pergamene territory in Asia and crossed into Europe, fortifying Lysimachia on the Hellespont, but his expansion into Anatolia and Greece was abruptly halted after a decisive defeat at the Battle of Magnesia (190 BC). During the reign of the Artaxiads, Armenia went through a period of hellenization. The Hellenistic time period begins with the death of Alexander the Great. Medicine, which was dominated by the Hippocratic tradition, saw new advances under Praxagoras of Kos, who theorized that blood traveled through the veins. McGing, BC. The Epicureans and the Cynics eschewed public offices and civic service, which amounted to a rejection of the polis itself, the defining institution of the Greek world. Developments in painting included experiments in chiaroscuro by Zeuxis and the development of landscape painting and still life painting. Non-Greeks also had more freedom to travel and trade throughout the Mediterranean and in this period we can see Egyptian gods such as Serapis, and the Syrian gods Atargatis and Hadad, as well as a Jewish synagogue, all coexisting on the island of Delos alongside classical Greek deities. Epigraphic evidence also shows extensive Hellenistic influence in the interior. This distinction is remarked upon in William M. Ramsay (revised by Mark W. Wilson). His son, Zipoetes I of Bithynia maintained this autonomy against Lysimachus and Seleucus I, and assumed the title of king (basileus) in 297 BC. In many ways, the Hellenistic period was a hugely cultured age – almost self-consciously so. Antiochus III recaptured Arsacid controlled territory in 209 BC from Arsaces II.