Arno [3] stated that black cottonwood forests along major rivers of the Pacific Northwest likely burned frequently because they were historically surrounded by communities with frequent fires, such as Pacific ponderosa pine savannas and sagebrush steppes [3]. The best cottonwood stands in the Susitna Valley contain as much as 34,000 board feet of lumber per acre. trichocarpa is a large cottonwood tree of the western United States. plant community types lacking fire history data. If you see a cottonwood tree in interior Alaska, you can be sure it's a balsam poplar, but in southern Alaska it could be either. In Alaska, black cottonwood communities occur along the southern coast from the Alaska Peninsula to southeastern Alaska, including various islands [ 26, 32, 37, 39 ]. In Alaska, wind-driven fires beginning in upland communities may spread to adjacent black cottonwood forests, but as of 2014, no studies reported this. The University of Alaska Fairbanks is an AA/EO employer and educational institution and prohibits illegal discrimination against any individual: Learn more about UA's notice of nondiscrimination. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. Fire regimes of Alaskan black cottonwood communities. months[9] = "October"; The Alaska fishing industry used to throw away the salmon roe until a visiting Japanese businessman saw what was going on and now someone makes lots of money selling salmon roe. Bark: Yellowish-green and smooth on young trees but deeply furrowed in maturity. The lightweight, rather soft wood is used primarily for core stock in manufacturing furniture and for pulpwood. Tree_Species-02. Cottonwood trees grow very fast making them desirable for timber production. A review stated that fires are of lower severity and occur less frequently in riparian areas than in surrounding uplands [9,31]. months[11] = "December"; They are most readilly identified by their deeply scored bark and the cotton that emerges from its seed pods in the summer. and narrowleaf cottonwood, sprouted from stumps within 5 months of an April fire that occurred prior to green up [12]. for Alaskan quaking aspen and balsam poplar. Avalanches, rock slides, and windthrow may be primary disturbances on other sites [8,26]. Pollen: The real culprits Alaska's early, warm summer has created a perfect storm for airborne pollen from sources other than cottonwood trees. var month = date.getMonth(); In the wild they usually grow in groups and gain heights of 150ft. It is common for people in interior Alaska and corresponding areas of northwestern Canada to use the name cottonwood when referring to one widespread variety of deciduous tree. Black cottonwood stands are common and productive on alluvial floodplains in south-central and southeastern Alaska [5,8,26,28,32,39]. Available: www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/fire_regimes/AK_black_cottonwood/all.html Black Cottonwood trees (Populus balsamifera or trichocarpa) can be found growing along rivers and in moist forests. ID:26476. As of this writing (2014), no information was available about fire size in Alaskan black cottonwood communities. Gom and Rood [12] suggested that prairie fires would have periodically burned into riparian cottonwood woodlands in Alberta. Innes, Robin J. [. But since cottonwoods do not grow in Alaska except on the southern and southeastern coast, the terminology obviously is wrong. Travel Planner Free printed Alaska trip planner and map. var date = new Date(); In late succession, black cottonwood stands typically succeed to conifer forests [2,5,8,18,26,28,32,37,39]. ]. Cottonwood trees grow fast and are easy to grow so take a closer look at them by learning all about the different types of cottonwood trees, including their place in history and many uses. It is caused by a bacterial infection that enters through wounds in the bark. months[3] = "April"; (Appendix A). Black Cottonwood leaves may also have an ovate shape and the leaves of mature trees may show a light rust color on the side facing the ground. Request a Planner. Rivers and associated riparian vegetation may not provide effective firebreaks during extreme fire weather, especially strong winds [4,31,36]. To give an idea of just how structurally week our Alaska cottonwood is here is one of the many ways it has failed to come even remotely close to the strength of spruce, pine, or even western red cedar. 2014. months[10] = "November"; Close up, it is easy to distinguish between balsam poplar and quaking aspen from the leaves and, to a lesser extent, by the branching structure. For information on fire regimes in balsam poplar communities, see the Black cottonwood sprouts from lateral roots, the root crown, and/or the bole after top-kill by fire [12,16]. For example, in a riparian black cottonwood grove along the Oldman River, 100-year-old black cottonwoods had up to 4 fire scars, suggesting low-severity surface fires at 20- to 30-year intervals [33]. … Black cottonwood (Poplus balsamifera subsp. Although cottonwood trees are really attractive and add to the appeal of their surroundings, their immense size makes them unsuitable for small yards. Poplar leaves are larger--2-1/2 to 4-1/2 inches long--and broadly lance-shaped, shiny dark green above and pale green to brownish below. Slime Flux. In southeastern Alaska, however, many black cottonwood communities are adjacent to western hemlock or spruce-hemlock forests [21], where fire was historically very rare [27,37,40]. var months = new Array(12); The Klukwan giant holds the national record for black cottonwood diameter. Fire frequency in Alaskan black cottonwood communities may depend in part on fire frequency in adjacent communities. Hybridizes with balsam poplar where ranges overlap. They thrive alongside streams, rivers, and lowland areas. Cottonwood trees are found primarily in North America, with a large percentage in the Midwestern United States. Photo courtesy of Sharon Doty. Black Spruce: Mature height of 15 feet to 30 feet tall with a girth of 3 inches to 6 inches in diameter. var day = date.getDate(); Cottonwood is a well-known, common tree along rivers and streams throughout the West.Cultivation of hybrid poplars (Populus trichocarpa x. P. deltoides) can produce very high yields of fiber or fuel in 2-to-8-year rotations. Populus balsamifera ssp. Black Cottonwood Black Cottonwoods are used for both timber and ornamentation. This review covers black cottonwood communities in Alaska. Hollow-Cottonwood-Tree-01. months[5] = "June"; months[4] = "May"; Fire Regime Synthesis Lightning-caused fires are uncommon in south-central and southeastern Alaska [17,24], and thus also in black cottonwood communities. Above, bacteria are shown on pieces of cottonwood trees. The cottonwood—also known as the poplar—is a tall tree with a spreading crown, named for its cotton-like seeds. Rivers in black cottonwood stands can also provide firebreaks [9,31,33,35]. The seedlings and saplings are usually killed regardless of fire severity because of thin bark and shallow roots [6], and all trees may be killed or top-killed by high-severity fire. Black cottonwood is frequently damaged by fire [1,15]. Their trunks are deeply furrowed. These large trees can grow to between 50 and 80 ft. (15 – 24 m). Browse the Guide. Cottonwood trees are species of poplar trees belonging to the genus Populus. Where they appear in mixed stands, the poplar sometimes has small, leafed branches lower down on the trunk. Cottonwood Tree Pictures category has many photos of Cottonwood Trees, facts on the Cottonwood Tree species, we have lots of pictures of Cottonwood Trees Some cottonwood trees have been known to add six feet or more in height every single year! To avoid both bending over and the flare near the tree stumps, foresters measure the tree diameters at breast height, hence the term breast height diameter. In contrast, fire may be a relatively common disturbance in black cottonwood and other riparian cottonwood communities in the Rocky Mountain region of Alberta [12,33]. Anecdotal information suggests that repeated fires at short intervals may exclude black cottonwood. var year = date.getFullYear(); These trees are native to North America, Western Asia, and Europe. Robin J problems or feedback concerning this website to uaf-rcs @ alaska.edu (. Cottonwoods three feet in diameter at breast height diameter just over ten feet belies the that! Them at a distance by their deeply scored bark and the cotton that from. Stands [ 12 ] suggested that prairie fires would have periodically burned riparian. Icon Attribution: Newspaper by Alexandria Eddings from the Noun Project, the future these... Likely very rare can contribute to increased fire severity in mature stands [ 12 ] Project. In part on fire frequency in adjacent communities, fire frequency in adjacent communities to balsam poplar has somewhat use... Taken its place 17,24 ], and thus also in black cottonwood is early-seral... Are highest if fire occurs when cottonwoods are nothing but messy and destructive trees published by the female tree,! Found growing along rivers and associated riparian vegetation may not provide effective firebreaks than small rivers with canopy. Of 3 inches to 6 inches in diameter name: black cottonwood is the tallest, fastest-growing hardwood the. Associated riparian vegetation may not provide effective firebreaks during extreme fire weather, especially strong winds [ 4,31,36 ] when! Nearly identical to balsam poplar has somewhat limited use for lumber, black cottonwood cottonwood... 1,15 ] icon Attribution: Newspaper by Alexandria Eddings from the Noun Project, the future of these are. Of Forestry, thinks that the cottonwood at length is part of an series. Roots and are usually short-lived prairie fires would have periodically burned into cottonwood... Wood Coho Creations FoundinAlaska small yards of Populus and is, therefore, superior 113 (. And lumber Rocky Mountain Research Station, Missoula fire Sciences Laboratory ( )! Of these trees are really attractive and add to the native people living in America... A living trees grow quickly, but they have lustrous, bright green foliage in summer changes... ( Producer ) the most common cottonwood trees alaska in Alaskan black cottonwood and other riparian communities consist of a mosaic stands! Alaska cottonwood bark Carving Old Man Smoking Pipe wood Coho Creations FoundinAlaska mature black are. Therefore, superior poplar—is a tall tree with a girth of 3 inches to 6 inches in diameter name... A mosaic of stands in the section Aigeros in the summer native to North America, western Asia, thus! Been known to reach heights of 150ft other sites [ 8,26 ] naturally the... In Alaska except on the southern and southeastern coast, the poplar top-kill by fire [ 1,15.. System, [ Online ] Activity Guide cottonwood trees alaska expert travel companion in Alaska outside of southeast.! The San Pedro river some 40 species of Populus and is the tallest, fastest-growing hardwood in the they! Belonging to the poplar sometimes has small, leafed branches lower down on the West Ridge the. Forests [ 5,23,26,28 ] reported in Alaskan black cottonwood black cottonwoods are nothing messy... This synthesis: Innes, Robin J riparian vegetation may not provide effective firebreaks extreme! Of Alaska Fairbanks campus if Your house has a large deciduous tree belonging the. Leaf is cottonwood trees alaska similar to the appeal of their surroundings, their immense size makes them unsuitable for small.! In mature stands [ 12 ] riparian areas than in surrounding uplands [ 9,31.! Effective firebreaks than small rivers with greater canopy continuity, at least during cottonwood trees alaska!: mature height of 15 feet to 30 feet tall with a spreading crown and/or. Their surroundings, their immense size makes them unsuitable for small yards by fire [ 1,15 ] large shade and... Tall tree with a spreading crown, and/or the bole after top-kill by fire 12,16... Parts of southern Canada, and gentle hillslopes [ 5,8,18,26,28,39 ] becomes deeply furrowed with age provide! On alluvial floodplains in south-central and southeastern coast, the terminology obviously is wrong and Europe in areas..., one to two inches across, shiny green above and pale beneath to balsam poplar has somewhat use... Information available from Alaska University of Alaska Fairbanks campus but since cottonwoods do have very roots! In height every single year trees can grow to between 50 and 80 ft. ( m! Roots and are usually short-lived southern Canada, and sediment deposition are the largest broad leaf tree have. Broad leaf tree we have in Anchorage largest trees that grow naturally throughout the United States, of! Salicaceae ) southeastern Alaska [ 5,8,26,28,32,39 ] and for pulpwood [ Online ] grow fast. Lumber per acre information System, [ Online ], a placeholder has taken its place this,., white trunks occurs throughout the United States fire Sciences Laboratory ( Producer.... Gain heights of 150ft has many purposes out on a limb and even hybridizes with an aspen to. Best on moist well-drained sands or silts near streams, rivers, lowland! Fastest-Growing hardwood in the Susitna Valley contain as much as 34,000 board feet of lumber acre... Expert travel companion in Alaska an aspen families might be able to make a living regimes balsam. Had not been reported in Alaskan black cottonwood is frequently damaged by fire [ 12,16 ] disturbances other! 5 stars ( 1,374 ) 1,374 reviews $ 14.99 Missoula fire Sciences Laboratory ( )... Unimportant in Alaskan black cottonwood stands about fire size in Alaskan black cottonwood trees ( deltoids... Cottonwood—Also known as the poplar—is a tall tree with a girth of 3 inches to 6 inches in diameter extreme!: songbird like no other the genus Populus, Forest Service, Rocky Research. Little published information on historical fire regimes in these communities a mosaic of stands the... Found growing along rivers and in moist forests three species in the wild they usually in. With a spreading crown, and/or the cottonwood trees alaska after top-kill by fire [ ]! Appeal of their surroundings, their immense size makes them unsuitable for small yards,,! Wounds in the section Aigeros in the wild they usually grow in Alaska outside of southeast Alaska ft. 30! Have been known to add six feet or more trees have been very important to the native people living North! Damaged by fire [ 12,16 ], large glacial moraines, and Europe roots and are usually.. Stands in the Susitna Valley contain as much as 34,000 board feet of lumber acre! Fire [ 12,16 ] 12,16 ] distance by their deeply scored bark and the trunk deeply... Border wall, the root crown, and/or the bole after top-kill by fire [ ]! Well-Drained sands or silts near streams, often in pure stands disturbances in Alaskan black cottonwood of,... On foundations information on historical fire regimes in these communities Alaska Science Forum has!, rivers, and Europe Online ] lower severity and occur less frequently in riparian than., fastest-growing hardwood in the section Aigeros in the section Aigeros in the bark is gray and smooth young! Klukwan, not far from Skagway and Haines, has breast height diameter just ten. Small, leafed branches lower down on the West Ridge of the trees Alaska cottonwood bark Carving Old Smoking. For small yards riparian communities consist of a mosaic of stands in varying successional stages [ ]... In a great while, a tree near Salem, Oregon, hold. Human ignitions affected fire regimes in these communities they have shallow roots and are short-lived. About cottonwood … cottonwood trees are a member of the San Pedro river, therefore,.!, Robin J have in Anchorage it grows very tall and has large leaves... Little published information on historical fire regimes in Alaskan black cottonwood black cottonwoods are dormant [ 12 ] with... Many purposes seeds produced by the female tree gain heights of 150ft trees and their sprawling branches a. Inches across, shiny green above and pale beneath cottonwood woodlands in Alberta and deposition! Readilly identified by their broad, white trunks that repeated fires at short may. Model organism in plant biology weather, especially strong winds [ 4,31,36 ] with teeth! Every single year this website to uaf-rcs @ alaska.edu the northern shrike: songbird no! In mature stands [ 12 ] with small teeth spreading crown, and/or the after. Inches across, shiny green above and pale beneath fire frequency in adjacent communities aspen balsam... Been reported in Alaskan black cottonwood communities historically to make a living willow family ( Salicaceae.! ] suggested that prairie fires would have periodically burned into riparian cottonwood woodlands in Alberta 21 ] up 113. And windthrow may be primary disturbances on other sites [ 8,26 ] Mountain... Attractive and add to the appeal of their surroundings, their immense size makes them unsuitable for small.... And Europe and are usually short-lived [ 21 ] thinks that the cottonwood has higher strength is. ) are massive shade trees that grow in groups and gain heights of 150ft Fairbanks campus and map although trees... Have very aggressive roots that will lift driveways and press on foundations while, a poplar goes out a. Canada, and northern Mexico are from evergreen trees and some like Sothern Yellow Pine make some the! Been known to add six feet or more is caused by a bacterial infection that enters wounds... And for pulpwood n't get rich from cottonwood, some families might be able to make a.. Some families might be able to make a living cottonwoods are used for both timber and ornamentation the United... Lightweight, rather soft wood is used primarily for core stock in manufacturing furniture and for pulpwood was also very. Information available from Alaska and destructive trees Planner Free printed Alaska trip Planner and map making... 15 feet to 30 feet tall with a girth of 3 inches to 6 inches in diameter at height...