LAGOS, May 29 2002 (IPS) - The birth of male children is still the source of pride and honour in Nigeria, while that of female children is seen as failure. So son preference, according to mothers, is due also to parents worrying about the vulnerability of daughters: “A son is more likely to be happy than a girl.” However, our research also revealed the strong symbolic value of sons: they carry on the family name and protect their families’ social position. These have received global attention due to their severe and negative impact on the health and well-being of girls. Parents’ preference for sons is a well-known phenomenon. Arnold (1997) analyzes data from 44 countries, but largely focuses on the effect of sex ratios on stated fertility preferences and on some fertility behaviors such as current pregnancy status and average birth spacing. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. This has been referred to as son preference. In Sub-Saharan Africa, behaviors reveal preference for variety or no preference. The magnitude of preferences is stronger for wealthier and more educated women. This paper uses individual level unit record data to test the son preference hypothesis in South Africa. Chinyere Elele. We develop a new indicator of gender preferences based on birth intervals. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. Keywords: human rights, Igbo custom, Nigeria, son preference, violation, women 1. It therefore examined son preference with particular emphasis on Igbo custom in Nigeria and discovered its deep rooted nature in the psyche of the people as well as the fact that it is a violation of the human rights of women and suggested measures to curb same. This paper uses individual level unit record data to test the son preference hypothesis in South Africa. A statement issued today by OHCHR, UNFPA, UNICEF, UN Women and the WHO* reviews the evidence behind the causes, consequences and lessons learned regarding “son preference” or sex selection favouring boys in many parts of South, East and Central Asia, where ratios as high as 130 boys for every 100 girls have been observed. A theoretical model suggests that costs (eg, dowries) are unlikely to explain the For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. If you originally registered with a username please use that to sign in. A preference for sons is not always found; and, indeed, a preference for daughters is shown to prevail in many societies. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Although, son preference was stronger, some 98% of the women in Bangladesh wanted to have at least one daughter realizing the importance of women in a house for household activities and … South Africa, in particular, is characterized by a strong taste for balance. Don't already have an Oxford Academic account? For the rest of the population, there is very little evidence of son preference. International comparisons of son preference are constructed, the first known to the author. that son preference exists only for the Indian community in South Africa. Search for other works by this author on: You do not currently have access to this article. Gender Preferences in Africa: A Comparative Analysis of Fertility Choices Pauline Rossi and L ea Rouanet February 2015 Abstract This paper proposes a new method to infer gender preferences from birth spacing. Figure 3 maps the magnitude of our indicator of gender preferences (α 1 + α 2) for countries in which α 1 and α 2 are jointly significant. This has been referred to as son preference. Son preference is strong and increasing in North Africa. JAE Special Issue: Education and Labour Market Outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa, B - History of Economic Thought, Methodology, and Heterodox Approaches, C - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods, E - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics, M - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics, O - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth, Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics, R - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics, About the Centre for the Study of African Economies, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Contact the Centre for the Study of African Economies, Copyright © 2020 Centre for the Study of African Economies. This article is also available for rental through DeepDyve. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2015.03.010. Some of the major HTPs practiced in Africa include female genital mutilation (FGM), early/child marriage and son preference. In Asia, son preference clearly dominates and at least half of parents want sons. This has been referred to as son preference. Register, Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. We use an accelerated hazard model to estimate the duration between successive births and our results indicate that son preference exists only for the Indian community in South Africa. We use an accelerated hazard model to estimate the duration between successive births and our results indicate that son preference exists only for the Indian community in South Africa. There is a mark difference between those that prefer sons in Idumodin- )gbanke and those that doesn t, which thus mean that there is a great level of son preference in Idumodin-Igbanke; Page | 34 Sex Preference Equal Distribution, More Sons, 37 31 More Daughters, 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 iv. 2003). Son Preference and Culture I measure the sex preferences of immigrant women in the United Kingdom by estimating the effect of family composition on birth hazard rates. The Nguni clans, which originated in East Africa in the fifteenth century, moved into southern Mozambique and then into present-day Swaziland; the term abakwaNgwane ("Ngwane's people") is still used as an alternative to emaSwati .Sobhuza I ruled during a period of chaos, resulting from the expansion of the Zulu state under Shaka. lowest DSRB. Please check your email address / username and password and try again. We nd that, in North Africa (Morocco, Tunisia and Egypt), son preference is strong and has increased over time. Sex preferences of children have been studied in different societies because of its associated social and demographic implications. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. This paper uses individual level unit record data to test the son preference hypothesis in South Africa. Data on over 168,000 children show that, relative to Africa, India’s height disadvantage increases sharply with birth order. Indian households are observed to have a higher duration between children following the birth of a son, irrespective of the number of children they already have. Greater heterogeneity in sex preferences in Africa Education, Access to Better Quality Work and Gender: Lessons from the Kagera Panel Data Set, Teacher and Parental Perceptions of Performance Pay in Education: Evidence from Tanzania. He finds son preference in a range of different countries, demonstrating that such preferences do not emerge from a single set of historical and cultural experiences. We show that son preference is strong and increasing in North Africa. Son preference is most common in countries across East and South Asia, but also in some countries in the Middle East and North Africa. Preferences are correlated to family systems, not to religion. Using individual-level data for Nigeria, the paper shows that, compared to women with first-born sons… Keywords: human rights, Igbo custom, Nigeria, son preference, violation, women 1. Further analysis concludes that traditional family systems predict well the nature of gender preferences, while religion does not. This has been referred to as son preference. We use an accelerated hazard model to estimate the duration between successive births and our results indicate that son preference exists only for the Indian community in South Africa. Otherwise, countries are classified as «no preference». By contrast, most Sub-Saharan African countries display a preference for variety or no preference at all. In Africa and the Americas, many parents want sons and many want daughters. Primogeniture (/ p r aɪ m-ə-/ also UK: /-oʊ-ˈ dʒ ɛ n ɪ tʃ ər /) is the right, by law or custom, of the firstborn legitimate child to inherit the parent's entire or main estate in preference to shared inheritance among all or some children, any illegitimate child or any collateral relative. This has been referred to as son preference. son preference, but women’s education and media exposure do make a difference. 74 Although there are significant cultural, economic and societal differences between these countries there are important parallels which explain strong preference for a … son preference Abstract Is the high degree of gender inequality in developing countries—in education,personalautonomy,andmore—explainedby underdevel- ... Americas Asia and Oceania Europe Middle East and N. Africa Sub-Saharan Africa R2 = 0.435 a … This paper uses individual level unit record data to test the son preference hypothesis in South Africa. Evidence from many developing countries suggests that parents have a preference for sons over daughters. LAGOS, May 29 2002 (IPS) - The birth of male children is still the source of pride and honour in Nigeria, while that of female children is seen as failure. This contradiction Inheritance rules and other cultural characteristics contribute to widespread son preference in Asia (Das Gupta et al. This paper uses individual level unit record data to test the son preference hypothesis in South Africa. 12, issue 3, 371-416 Abstract: Evidence from many developing countries suggests that parents have a preference for sons over daughters. SON PREFERENCE AND AFRICAN FERTILITY: A FRAMEWORK Studies indicate that fertility is higherin Africa than in any other part of the world, (Population Reference Bureau 1997; Okolocha et al., 1998; UNICEF 2001) notwithstanding that access to adequate maternal health facilities is lowest in the region (UNICEF, 1995; Hulton et al., 2000). To purchase short term access, please sign in to your Oxford Academic account above. Authorities, who arrested him under South Africa’s anti-mercenary laws, showed that Mark had transferred nearly $300,000 to mercenaries who planned the coup. Women are in For the rest of the population, there is very little evidence of son preference. This perhaps explains the reason for the large number of children born by most families in a quest to have male children. The strongest son preferences are observed in countries with ratios exceeding 120: Mauritania, Pakistan, Senegal, Guinea, Nepal, Azer-baijan, Jordan, Mali, Armenia, Niger, India, and Chad. Preferences are correlated to family systems, not to religion. Journal of African Economies, 2003, vol. India and China are leaders in the effort to discourage sex-selective abortion and other aspects of son preference. CULTURE-NIGERIA: Male Child Remains a Family Pride and Honour. By contrast, most Sub-Saharan African countries display a preference for variety or no preference at all. We apply it to Africa, where the least is known about gender preferences. Selecting Boys Over Girls Is A Trend In More And More Countries : Goats and Soda With abortion, infanticide and neglect, parents are taking steps … However, our data show … balance preference is the most common type of preference in the vast majority of countries, countries/regions vary in the prevalence of son and daughter preferences. 12, issue 3, 371-416 Abstract: Evidence from many developing countries suggests that parents have a preference for sons over daughters. This paper considers a country in Sub-Saharan Africa and finds that parental gender preferences do affect fertility behavior and shape traditional social institutions with negative effects on adult women's health and well-being. We show that son preference is strong and increasing in North Africa. We show that son preference is strong and increasing in North Africa. Evidence from many developing countries suggests that parents have a preference for sons over daughters. Preference for sons could be the result of a combination of factors including religious beliefs and social customs such as the dowry system, lineage and familial and kinship ties. We posit that India’s steep birth order gradient is due Son preference is strong and increasing in North Africa. This paper uses individual level unit record data to test the son preference hypothesis in South Africa. son preference Abstract Is the high degree of gender inequality in developing countries—in education,personalautonomy,andmore—explainedby underdevel- ... Americas Asia and Oceania Europe Middle East and N. Africa Sub-Saharan Africa R2 = 0.435 a … You could not be signed in. Strong boy-bias and its consequences for young and unborn girls have been widely documented for Asia. Most users should sign in with their email address. A statement issued today by OHCHR, UNFPA, UNICEF, UN Women and the WHO* reviews the evidence behind the causes, consequences and lessons learned regarding “son preference” or sex selection favouring boys in many parts of South, East and Central Asia, where ratios as high as 130 boys for every 100 girls have been observed. This paper uses individual level unit record data to test the son preference hypothesis in South Africa. This perhaps explains the reason for the large number of children born by most families in a quest to have male children. This has been referred to as son preference. Lata Gangadharan, Pushkar Maitra, Testing for Son Preference in South Africa, Journal of African Economies, Volume 12, Issue 3, 1 September 2003, Pages 371–416, https://doi.org/10.1093/jae/12.3.371. This study examines whether the use of social media by parents is gender biased. This paper proposes a new method to infer gender preferences from birth spacing. This is know as son preference. One might expect that women living in economically more developed areas and those from wealthier families would be less likely to exhibit son preference. This has been referred to as son preference. This is know as son preference. The Role of Birth Order and Son Preference† By Seema Jayachandran and Rohini Pande* Child stunting in India exceeds that in poorer regions like sub-Saharan Africa. This paper uses individual level unit record data to test the son preference hypothesis in South Africa. By contrast, in most Sub-Saharan African countries, behavior is consistent with either preference for variety or no preference. This paper proposes a new method to infer gender preferences from birth spacing. finds some weak evidence for son preference in North Africa and Sri Lanka. Education influences aspects of demographic behaviour and outcomes including a child sex preference. As expected, several of these countries are Asian, but it is somewhat surprising to see six African countries with such high DSRBs.7 In Sub-Saharan Africa, behaviors reveal preference for variety or no preference. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Don't already have an Oxford Academic account? Using the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, we examined the association between educational attainment and sex preferences of children. Downloadable! preferences and on some fertility behaviors such as current pregnancy status and average birth spacing. We use an accelerated hazard model to estimate the duration between successive births and our results indicate that son preference exists only for the Indian community in South Africa. History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation. Abstract. We find that, in North Africa (Morocco, Tunisia, and Egypt), son preference is strong and has increased over time. Pleading guilty, he was given a … By contrast, most Sub-Saharan African countries display a preference for variety or no preference at all. In Nigerian generally and in Igbanke in particular the issue of a male child preference may not be as blatant as what obtains in Asia, but it exists nonetheless. He finds regional variation in the extent of an association between sex ratios and the outcomes he analyzes, with the strongest results suggesting son-preference for the Asian and North African countries. The magnitude of preferences is stronger for wealthier and more educated women. Gender Preferences in Africa: A Comparative Analysis of Fertility Choices. Nonetheless, a strong preference for sons, combined with modern technology, continues to pose a serious social, economic and ethical dilemma for policymakers in the region. 27 We find evidence of son preference in North Africa (Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt), Mali and Senegal, and also in the Great Lakes region (Burundi, Kenya, Uganda, Mozambique, Tanzania). This is know as son preference. We apply it to Africa, where the least is known about gender preferences. Last, the magnitude of preferences is stronger for wealthier and more educated women. Indian households are observed to have a higher duration between children following the birth of a son, irrespective of the number of children they already have. Due to the large-scale use of social media, even a moderate bias might significantly contribute to gender inequality. This paper uses individual level unit record data to test the son preference hypothesis in South Africa. Every Nigerian Father, irrespective of his economic or social status, desires a male child. African Junta and Defence Spending: A Capture Effect or Self-preservation? This paper uses individual level unit record data to test the son preference hypothesis in South Africa. It therefore examined son preference with particular emphasis on Igbo custom in Nigeria and discovered its deep rooted nature in the psyche of the people as well as the fact that it is a violation of the human rights of women and suggested measures to curb same. Evidence from most developing countries suggest that parents have a preference for sons over daughters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Chinyere Elele. By contrast, in most Sub-Saharan African countries, behavior is consistent with either preference for variety or no preference. Journal of African Economies, 2003, vol. We apply it to Africa, where the least is known about gender preferences. Cultural preference for sons was evident from that fact that in Hindu\'s traditions, only sons could pray for and release the souls of their dead parents and only males could perform birth, death and marriage rituals. Evidence from many developing countries suggests that parents have a preference for sons over daughters. The least is known about gender preferences Nigeria, son preference hypothesis in Africa! Wealthier and more educated women suggest that parents have a preference for variety or no.. Even a moderate bias might significantly contribute to widespread son preference in Asia, son preference hypothesis South... Male child 168,000 children show that son preference, violation, women 1 further analysis that. Social media by parents is gender biased nature of gender preferences, while religion does.. 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